What is Homophobia

Homophobia refers to any hostile attitude, belief, or action toward persons of differing sexual orientation or gender identity. It includes laws and structural manifestations of that prejudice in institutional settings, such as the workplace. This working definition encompasses the three levels of stigma described earlier.” (Lamontagne et al., 2018). Participants are being asked to participate in this research study to solve a community problem that is Homophobia in society. People who grow up in a loving environment with supportive family members and caregivers develop the ability to love others and themselves compassionately.
Using the Attachment Theory (Bowlby, 1988), Greene and Britton (2015) have investigated the link between the warmth and security perceived in childhood, self-compassion, personal control, and subjective happiness in adult LGBTQ individuals.
The study’s step is too internalized Homophobia; the root is to look at the notion that heterosexuality is the only way people can display love. Some people might say that homosexuality and bisexuality are just as normal as heterosexuality. The negative mindset is based on the ideology of social structure by the heterosexist. People who are homosexual and bisexual can be ashamed and hate themselves because they let down the religious and moral system.
Close to 100 subjects will be enrolled in the study.
The research study is voluntary, which means you can choose not to participate or leave the review without any reason. However, you will be penalized and lose part of the benefits of enrolling in the course. We would ask for you to take your time and read the information carefully and discuss it with others, including friends and family. In case you have questions, please ask the researcher to answer them. It would help if you were as honest about your belief, or it may not be comfortable for you to study.

Homophobia, a particular case of stigma based on sexual orientation and gender identity, affects primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people (LGBTI). Several definitions focus on the clinical aspect, describing Homophobia as ‘an irrational, persistent fear or dread of homosexuals.’ ( Lamontagne et al., 2018).

Based on the text, “The level of infringement of human rights, verbal and physical violence and denial of health services associated with homophobia is a public health issue.” ( Lamontagne et al. 2018).

Asian men are raised in a rigorous environment, and when they displayed a lack of masculinity, they stigma from their communities. They also have to deal with stereotypes and discrimination from gay white men. The author state transgender on gay Asian drag qIslandereattle, Han (2009) found that gay Asian men use the feminity stereotypes about Asian men to trade the stigmatized status of “Asian,” which they perceive as lowering their social status in the gay community, for the stigmatized group of “drag queens,” which allows them to gain social currency. “(Chong-Suk Han et al., 2014).

Based on the text, “Recent studies on gay Asian men have found that members of this group experience high levels of both racisms in the gay community and Homophobia in their ethnic communities. For example, a survey of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender Asian and Pacific Islander (API) men and women in New York found that 82% of respondents had personally experienced racism in the gay community and 76% experienced. Homophobia.” (Chong-Suk Han et al., 2014).
Based on the text, “Social workers must:
1. Develop a GLBT content knowledge base [including the recognition of current LGBT issues and an understanding of the LGBT lesbian and gay communities]

2. Challenge personal biases about sexual minority people and practice in accordance with social work values and ethics.

3. Not presume the sexual orientation or gender identity of clients.

4. Use accurate and respectful language in all communication to and about clients.

5. Avoid assuming that the characteristics and needs of all sexual minority groups — gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender — are the same.

6. Approach cases from an ecological systems perspective[It is essential to appreciate the significance of the social environment and its effects on lesbian and gay people’s lives. Practitioners should confront oppressive policies, laws, and treatment and advocate for change. Social workers should be aware of available resources and potential social supports.].

7. Honor diversity among GLBT people [Each lesbian or gay person is a distinct and unique individual, just as each heterosexual person is.]

8. Honor client self-determination regarding disclosure.

9. Honor clients’ rights to privacy regarding their sexual orientation and gender identity.

10. Advocate for GLBT-affirmative work environments and GLBT-affirmation agency services. [Social workers should advocate for fair and equal treatment and for services designed to meet the needs of GLBT clients.](Morrow, 2006c, pp. 13–15)”
Within the reading, it states, “Recent epidemiological evidence shows the increasing incidence of HIV among gay men and other MSM in most countries; new HIV infections rose by almost 12% between 2011 and 2015.[36] There is growing evidence that Homophobia impedes access to prevention, care, and treatment by gay men and other MSM.[16],[NaN] The availability of this index of Homophobia at country level enables the better understanding of the determinants of vulnerability to HIV infection among gay men and other MSM in low- and middle-income countries.” (Lamontagne et al., 2018).
Methodology
Participants (n=250) from Setton Hall University were recruited at baseline for the analysis.
Researchers use open & closed-ended questions to study participants’ understanding of their mindset on Homophobia.
Researchers interviewed 250 students from the university, 100 identified as heterosexual, and 150 identified themselves as homosexual and bisexual according to the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (n=6 adaptive, n=14 maladaptive). They also used the APS-R, which is a 23 item scale that measures the area of Homophobia. The questions will range from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree on which evaluate the research methods & analytical approaches used in the study. The study was conducted in the Department of sociology at Setton Hall University in the United States and was approved by the school Institutional Review Board. All participants provided written informed consent.
The mean age of the sample was 20 (standard deviation (SD)=11 years, 15 (71.4%) were women. All ten identified as white, ten as Asians, five as blacks, and five as Hispanic, and three as others. Within the reading “In a study conducted on a group of high school students by Başbuğ (2014), it was aimed to investigate the determination of what it could be that occupies the mind in adolescence and the link between these subjects and the individuals’ attachment styles and possessed self-compassion levels and psychological symptoms. Research results show that all essential variables (adolescent issues, attachment styles, self-compassion, psychological symptoms) are related. The regression analysis that was conducted to determine the variables that predict the psychological symptoms in individuals in adolescence has shown that; negative self-perception, negative perception of the father, positive self-perception, positive perception of the mother, self-judgment, isolation, awareness of sharing, health, and financial issues are variables that predict psychological health. The model test analysis results have shown that the Self-compassion Scale (Deniz, Kesici, & Sümer, 2008) plays a mediator role in linking attachment styles and matters that occupy the mind in adolescence. Also, the fact that the issues that occupy the mind in youth play a mediator role between the relationship between insecure attachment styles and psychological symptoms are an essential result of the study.
There are studies which show that unsatisfactory relationships in homosexual males are related to internalized Homophobia (Romance, 1987) and insecure attachment (Elizur & Mintzer, 2003).” Most studies of Homophobia focused at the individual level. Being able to identify the level of Homophobia at the country level is important to guide public health policies as recent evidence shows that reductions in the homophobic climate are associated with improved health outcomes among gay men and other MSM.” (Lamontagne et al. 2018).
Homophobia in society is an interactionist perspective because the homophobic people put labels on others and see them as different. During this research, the participants might not answer the questions truthfully because they might not believe they are homophobic. Self-stigma and mental illness are correlated, and the best way to cure it is to deal with the underly issues. Sexual minorities mostly suffer from inadequate mental health outcomes because of a lack of healthcare services, culture stigma, and discrimination.

Reference

Adalberto Campo-Arias; Edwin Herazo; Lizet Oviedo. In: Duazary, Vol 12, Iss 2, Pp 140–146 (2015); Universidad del Magdalena. Language: Spanish; Castilian, Database: Directory of Open Access Journals

Bordas, J. (2013, July 15). Juana Bordas Speech about Diversity (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxKYzLPpZYs

Lamontagne, Erik; d’Elbée, Marc; Ross, Michael W; Carroll, Aengus; Plessis, André du; Loures, Luiz;(2018). European Journal of Public Health, 28(5): 967–972. 6p. (Article — equations & formulas, research, tables/charts) ISSN: 1101–1262, Database: CINAHL Complete

Zastrow, C. H. & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Empowerment Series: Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Retrieved from https://redshelf.com/

Zeynep Set; Ahmet Altinok. In: Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi Araştırmalar Dergisi, Vol 5, Iss 3, Pp 135–144 (2016); Association for Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 2016. Language: Turkish, Database: Directory of Open Access Journals

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ABA therapist | Published Writer | Consultant

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Marie A. Diaz-Cervo

ABA therapist | Published Writer | Consultant

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